Tumor Induced Osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome that causes low levels of phosphorus in the body and weakens bones. TIO is the result of small tumor(s) in the body that produce high levels of a protein called fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). High levels of FGF23 cause the body to eliminate too much phosphate in the urine, which can cause bones to become weak.
Like other types of cancer, TIO is an acquired condition meaning that it is not present at birth and is diagnosed later in life. Due to the tumors small size and slow growing nature, TIO tumors may take anywhere from 2.5-28 years to be diagnosed from the first sign of symptoms.